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Romans 1:5-6, 15-18 Print E-mail
Written by Oshea Davis   
Monday, 28 July 2014

Romans 1:5-6, 15-18

 THE INFINITE TREASURE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF CHRIST vs THE SPECULATIONS OF MAN

 

Through Him we have received grace and apostleship for obedience to the faith among all nations for His name, among whom you also are the called of Jesus Christ…

So, as much as is in me, I am ready to preach the gospel to you who are in Rome also.

 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God to salvation for everyone who believes, for the Jew first and also for the Greek.

 For [in the gospel] the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "The just shall live by faith."

 [Therefore,] the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness, because what may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them.

 

 

We will, by God’s grace, dive into additional themes of Romans which converge in Romans 8, but this section is devoted to the revelation of God.  This is not arbitrary, but is purposeful both by this writer and of Paul in his letter.  

Without the possibility of knowledge and truth why write about the knowledge of God’s love and power?  This is why the doctrine of God’s revelation and epistemology is the right starting point for systematic theology and preaching.  In the realm of worldview argumentation this same point is a weakness and failure of all non-biblical philosophies, religions, sciences and all other man-made superstitions.

Picture a father and mother who are wise, kind and loving to their children; however, their children despise their every word and respect the words of drug pushers more.  Imagine a boss who is a good leader, he pays his employees much more than the average, with good benefits and who also listens and respects his employees; however, his employees loathe his every word and esteem the words of a slave owner more than their boss. Some people like to fancy that the problem lies not with the children or employees, but with the boss and parents, for this to them would be the only logical explanation for the loathing. And in fact, this is exactly how most in the world consider and treat God Almighty. However, it is not that God’s words have failed to describe the world; rather, it is their narrow minds that have failed to stop chasing their own shadows and look up at the world around them.  God’s words are a superior, obvious and good path; however, they are so habituated with crawling on a destructive and intellectually inferior path their tiny minds cannot contemplate what a good path even is.  It is not that God’s words are not sure; rather, it is their wild speculations, leading to skepticism, which cannot grasp reality. 

At any rate, why God does despise man’s speculations and unbelief so much?

 God is the sole creator of all things.  And He created all things for Himself and to His glory.  So of course, God knows about the reality He created and why and where it is going. Since God is was the only thing in Existence before He created, then there is no other epistemology that can inform us about God in certainty, for it would not be a true first principle of knowledge.  Since God is the original, the sole giver and sustainer of all knowledge and understanding, then there cannot be any other first principle of knowledge other than God. The Scripture rejects dualism; that is, that there any other power/standard which governs reality other than God.  Thus, not only is God the first principle of knowledge, but God is the only power (metaphysics) that can impart His knowledge.

God the Father was, and is an invisible Spirit/Mind; and before He created there was, well, no creation. Thus, God’s knowledge is not learned or observed but is purely proposition and intrinsic to His own eternal, infinite and logical thinking.  Furthermore, His knowledge of reality is due to the fact He planned and predestined it all out from a purposes perspective (top to bottom order). Man and woman created in God’s image likewise image this reality in that their knowledge is propositional and also not acquired by observation. Since again, God was alone in this, then He alone is the first principle of knowledge for any created thing. That is, God must directly impart some of His own knowledge into a created mind by his power in order for there to be any knowledge of any kind.  God must reveal Himself.

And this is exactly what we learn in Romans chapter one. “What may be known of God is manifest in them, for God has shown it to them.” Some mistake this that knowledge of God is given to mankind by observing creation: as if observation like chance has existence.[1] Again, the Bible rejects dualism. What this verse teaches (this is seen clearer in Rom.2:15 as a hermetical parallel) that God directly puts knowledge of Himself into the minds of men/women on the occasion they observe something or that the observing stimulates the knowledge of God, which God already put in their mind, to come up to the surface.  

To suggest that knowledge comes by the senses and observation is as superstitions as believing in pink flying unicorns. Empiricism is inductive and by this alone forfeits knowledge—because it leads to skepticism, which then leads to the denying of the law-of-noncontradiction[2]—for its conclusions are not validly inferred. Knowledge is propositional, yet what we observe is not propositional, and this again leads to logical irrationality. Observation as a thing does not have being, yet, our scientist speak in a such a way leading us to believe that this non-existing observation-fairy magically transforms a picture viewed in the senses into a propositional true or false concept in the mind; for without propositions, of true or false, then there is no understanding. Aren’t fairy-tales nice? Also, science in addition to being inductive uses the process of experimentation, which is a systematic use of affirming the consequent: (p therefore q; q therefore p). The only way so-called controlled experiments help this is if one is Omni-knowing: maybe this is how some superstitious scientist see themselves?  However, this is always fallacious and again leads to skepticism and the denying of the law of noncontradiction when used in a worldview system of thinking and in an epistemology for knowledge.

          Also, if we do gather new information “God,” not the power of observation, is said to put this in our hearts and minds.  This is seen with “knowledge” about the gospel of Jesus Christ.  For example, 2 Corinthians 4:6, “The God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.”  God, not reading it in the Bible or hearing it when a person preaches, but God Himself puts this “knowledge” and propositions in us as supernaturally as He caused light to shine out of nothing in the creating of the universe.

          This does not mean our observing or the use of our senses has no part to play, it just means they are not the actual “cause” of knowledge, God is. 

          God uses the “occasion,” if you would, of our observing to directly create knowledge in the mind.  This is similar to me drinking a soda with a straw.  The straw is not the cause for why the drink in now in my body, but I took advantage of the occasion to use the straw in the process: I do not have to use it.  This understanding should not be strange for Paul said to the Greeks that “God gives to all life, breath, and all things (i.e. knowledge).  For in Him we live and move and have our being.”  Here, God both sovereignly gives knowledge and continually gives and sustains all knowledge in man.

          The harmony of creation and the human mind is designed perfectly by God and implemented by perfect power. As God moves in a consistent way in creation (we call this laws of nature), and then will upon the occasion of our observation of the creation He is moving, He will directly communicate knowledge to the mind.  It feels intuitive to us but all knowledge it is only by direct Divine power.

          This is what I mean by saying Divine Revelation is our epistemology, or how we have knowledge.  Matthew 16:17, “Jesus answered and said to him, "Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.”  We are talking about knowledge and propositions: the proposition that Jesus is the “Son of God,” as true or false.  Jesus Christ says it was “by” God and not observation or senses that put this knowledge in Peter.

With innate knowledge Romans 2:15 and 1:18-20 tells us God Divinely puts this understanding, logic and knowledge in us before we were born, being written on our souls.  Also, contrary to what some say about Romans 1:18-20 it is not saying “by” the power observation (as if observation has being) we acquire the information that God is powerful.  In such places as John 12:29 Scriptures show us that our observations are not always accurate; thus, if observations are not certain then neither observing the heavens will certainly make people know God’s power!  Therefore, Romans 1 is not referring to observation, for everyone certainly knows; well, at least for a while before they suppress the truth.  Romans 1 in context of Romans 2:15 helps us understand that our innate knowledge of God is already with us, and therefore, when we observe we are not gathering new information so much as this is an opportunity for us to recall and reflect on the innate knowledge about God we already have, put there by sovereign direct power.

In any case, one is able to see a problem with men if they try to find out ultimate questions about reality if they look inward to their speculations. Men by use of their creative superstitions, logic or observations by necessity bypass the only true self-authenticating First Principle of knowledge, God.  Now, logic is from God,[3] the created world and the created mind which holds propositions are from God; there can be no other first principle for man to know the world except God.  Without the right first principle the whole system of man’s speculations (whether in the form of logical-philosophy, science or religions) are doomed from the start.

The entire system of thinking is ruined from the get to. Without the right starting place they cannot even know how off the mark they are, for such requires the truth to begin with. Modern man naïvely tries to solve this by calling his philosophy progressivism: they will keep progressing until they get to the better future they desire. However, if one must keep changing, then it is an admittance that one is wrong to begin with. If one is right from the start, then why change?  If one is wrong, then how do they know if they are truly progressing? To know such again requires the truth, which they do not have. How can one approximate to a point, without knowing where that point is? Also, if progress is the standard, then even progress itself must progress, so that progress as the standard no longer means to progress. That is, if it is true, then it is also false.

As a branch from skepticism--agnosticism, progressivism and relativism—suffers the same fate.  If they are true, then they are also false. Skepticism is the most direct from of this thinking: There is no truth.  However, if said as a truth, then in order for this statement to be true it is also false. If not said as a truth, then it does not apply to me, and so who cares. The others are more round-about versions of skepticism, and the result is the same nonsense. Any system of thinking of that rests on such are to be mocked and thrown aside.

Where does the superstitions and empty speculations end? God. God must sovereignly reveal Himself.  This is what God did when He created man and woman in the garden.  He not only sovereignty put innate knowledge in them, but He kindly stepped down from heaven and walked with man in the cool of the day and continued to reveal Himself in friendship and love.  And For a time the honeymoon went well: God revealing Himself and His glory to man in friendship and man receiving this in love. However, one day the father of lies, while in the form of a serpent, deceived the woman and man to believe his words over God’s.  That is, Satan convinced man to reject the words of God who created all things, who’s words breathed life into them, who’s words man saw all creatures obeying, and instead to value the words and speculation of him, the serpent.

God warned man what would happen if they rejected God. God would reject them by removing His life from their souls. They would die, and would die in stages until the final form of death is God’s direct firefly wrath poured upon them. An aspect of what this life of God in man’s soul is, is that man accepts the evidence of God as their first principle of all knowledge and good.  We know this for when God informs us about the specifics of His redemption of man God tells us in the prophets that He will put His Spirit/life within man’s soul, and when this happens it leads to man believing and clinging to God in love. 

At any rate, we see the big picture of man’s spiritual death on earth in Romans chapter one.  Here, we lean man not only has a difficult time understanding God’s truth written with in their souls (that is, God is the source of logic, and so corrupted man will have difficulty with logic since they reject the source/epistemology), but they actively despise it and suppress it within their thoughts. “Who suppress the truth in unrighteousness.” Not only do they suppress God’s truth but they do it through evil deeds. That is, in addition to not accepting God as their first principle, they despise His moral beauty and so they walk in the opposite direction, because the despise Him. This leads non-Christians into two ways of acting.

The First is the abyss of superstations and skepticism. Without being on the right path, and because they reject this good path that alone is a first principle able to give truth and an accurate way of understanding reality, then the unbeliever is left to the empty vacuum of their speculations. They have no self-authentication first principle that is non-contradictive and is able to yield enough propositions to cover the world and life.  In this empty vacuum they simply make up one superstition after another.

[They] became futile in their thoughts, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Professing to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like corruptible man -- and birds and four-footed animals and creeping things.”

In the empty space where God is the only rational first principle of all truth and knowledge man fills it with himself and starts there.  From this they worship themselves in superstitions of (science, rationalism/philosophies, empiricism, and atheism) or worship speculations as non-Biblical religions and other so-called spiritual fantasies.  In the prophets God enjoyed mocking men for their pathetic ways of looking at the world. The LORD would ask why people would cut down a tree and then cut a block from it in their sweat, to then give it to a wood worker, who would in labor cut out a so-called figure of a deity.  After all this hard work, the customer would pick up the deity and carry it on their back to their house. In this case, the question is who is carrying who?  Who needs who? It seems the deity is the one who needs the people rather than the people needing the deity; however, the people pray to this deity, they carried, as if it could hear their prayers and carry their request?  This is the nonsense men come up with, when left in the void of suppressing and disbelieving God’s truth.

However, the story does not become less delusional when men use science/empiricism as a first principle for knowledge, and thus from here try and produce a way of thinking about the world they live in. Empiricism despite having no grounds for any knowledge whatsoever, particularly has nothing to say about such things as logic, math, the measure of time and the concept of a space, for such are about universals but empiricism is about limited temporary transient moments.  In order to understand logic, a unit of math, time or space, they (logic, a unit of math, time and space) must be presupposed first! Without being Omni-knowing observations boils down to circular fallacious nonsense. That is, men superstitiously cut out observations and science and give it to scientist who carve out so-called deities and truth with it, and then men carry this science on their backs of logic, knowledge and math (since empiricism cannot give this) and upon setting it down in their house, will rely on this so-called speculation to carry them to progress, knowledge, truth, and utopia.  While such imaginations might be said to be creative and might make for half-way interesting summer pop-corn flick, it falls short of understanding reality as it before us.

The Second, is man attempting to use his superstitions to validate and/or cover up his sins.  As stupid as skepticism and man’s speculation are, they are a decent smoke-screen—at least to themselves and to other men who suppress God’s truth with them—in camouflaging or excusing their sins in the chaos of skeptical uncertainty and confession.

C.S. Lewis said something to the effect that while the ancients were through philosophy trying to conform man’s thinking to reality, that today man is trying to conform reality to how man feels/thinks about it.  This is a narrow way of viewing anthropology and history, but for Lewis who was lost in modernity to then become a Christian this is a suitable viewpoint from this particular angle; however, it is not a proper overreaching view of the world.  That is, this is not merely a problem with modernity (trying to conform reality to how mankind feels/thinks about it); rather, it is the problem of every age and every non-believer.  Because unbelievers lack and suppress God’s truth, which is the only first principle of knowledge for man, then non-christians no matter what form the superstition takes (empiricism, modernity, worshiping of moon spirits or Allah, homosexuality is natural, man saying he is a women) is trying to redefine reality to how he feels about it: which is in some respects involve exalting man, and also concerns hiding, rationalizing and excusing certain sins of their age they like.

Men have become so self-delusional in the vacuum of no rational thinking about the world, they suppose themselves little gods who can redefine reality by redefining words. I just love a good fairy-tale but when people act as if they are real, then there is no telling the harm that will result from such stupidity.  For example: today in America man is able sue the military and force them pay for him to take drugs and amputated body parts (as if this is a physiologically healthy thing) and then supposedly if he calls himself a women that it redefines reality, and magically by the power of pink unicorns the DNA of his body is changed?  I often wonder if the powers at be will in my age who supports the redefining of reality by words will allow me to sue my bank, claiming that the 5 dollars in my account feels more like 5 million to me, and the fact that my evil bank only claims its 5 dollars makes me feel less of a person?  

This leads us to understand how God’s innate knowledge in man—in the context of a man’s fall, and in context of God working out to save many of them—leads to the logical necessity of the Scripture: that is, a propositional univocal revelation from God to man about theology and salvation. It leads to the necessity of Christian metaphysics (God’s Sovereign power) over man’s soul to restore it to a place where they stop suppressing the truth; and again, this brings the necessity of new Revelation of this salvation itself, for the details of this salvation, which man is commanded to believe are not part of innate knowledge. Thus, God gives us His chosen ones the Scripture to understand, and His Son for salvation itself and the Spirit to restore their souls into the LIFE of God.

The Bible’s view of Biblical Inspiration is very high in that God dictates through human authors His mind, that is, through sovereign transcription God reveals His nature and His mind in a precise and univocal manner.  The Bible is an exact revelation from God’s Mind.  Scripture never “came from the prophets themselves,” but they were “moved by God’s Spirit,” as a mighty wave moves a ship however it wishes, that is, to say the scripture is “God breathed.” In fact, the scripture being so “God’s breathed” and without man being involved in it to mess it up that “Scripture” claims Divinity alongside with Yahweh in Romans 9:17.  Peter calling Paul’s letters, “Scripture,” puts them on the same level as the prophets. 

Furthermore, this dictation doctrine is more than a human dictation which would be a weak view of scripture; rather, God being more sovereign over man than a puppeteer, for God’s sovereign control is greater than a few stings, does not find the man, but creates that man from scratch who He wants him to be, even direct control over the man’s thoughts, emotions and will.  The occurrence of the writers in their lives, backgrounds, educations, personalities (etc) is what we should anticipate in the biblical doctrine of inspiration, where God used direct sovereign control over these writers, in their lives, placement, environments and even over their every thought, not just when they wrote scripture; and so, this human element is what God intended, not to use, but intended to create and to cause.

So, from the beginning God’s words crafted the worlds out of nothing, except by the sheer unstoppable power of His word. By His word man was formed, and by God’s word God produced gifts and goodness for man. However, man rejected this Word for that of the father of lies, Satan. Then for thousands of years, as man wallowed in his skepticisms, deaths and evils man would not relent and seek to cling to God’s Word, but instead created more elaborate superstitions as if weirder delusions would solve their problems.  Man believes his words, woman believes her words, children believe their imaginations, professors except their speculations as true, and nations believe their governments. Groups will conjure every form of skeptical conjecture and men and women will believe them, no matter how great the stupidity.  Yet the Words which proceeds from the mouth of God, men shake their fist and hiss at them.

            Men walk in their paths of superstitions, all the while as it harms them, bringing more death and stupidity to them, yet, no matter how much harm and irrational thinking it brings, they will not relent. They say they will progress to better paths, but since they do not have the truth to begin with it is impossible for them to find the good and right path. They need up conjuring up a different path that again leads to sink holes, thorns and wild beasts that devour them in the night.  For a while the types of harm feels different, and so they feel better, until they find out the result of failure and damage has not changed at all.  And so, while they again suppress the only suitable first principle that is able give them the understanding to find the only good and right path to safety, they will come up with another superstition and run naked down a palmetto field until they realize how awful it is; and then repeat the process over again through endless boiling sand dunes.

            All the while in the mist of this chaos and pain God speaks, revealing Himself in love to His chosen ones. He will not fail them despite the horrid predicament they are in, for they too, are lost in foolishness and sin until God saves them. This is exactly why God saves them, because they cannot. Romans 8:7 tells us that men do not even have the ability/freedom to submit to obey God and His law.  It is precisely because they do not have the freedom to submit to God that they need God to save them.  And in Romans 8 it reveals concerning removing man’s unrighteousness and endowing him with a soul which loves God that “GOD DID,” (Rom. 8:3). God’s grace in Jesus Christ, which was once a secret and not the way of man, is now His chosen one’s way.  As the churches savior God did the saving. As a Redeemer He did the redeeming.  As the designer He did the planning. As the strong one, God did the heaving lifting, pulling His beloved saints out of the miry clay.  As the source of understanding and knowledge God poured His truth into the minds of His chosen ones, giving them a sure first principle of knowledge for knowing their glorious God, and the reality He created. “God who commanded light to shine out of darkness, has shone in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ,” (2 Corinth. 4:6).

            This is why God puts such a high premium on faith.

For [in the gospel] the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith; as it is written, "The just shall live by faith."

            Firstly, because God actually did the saving of man, at a definite time and place, without their help or involvement, then the only thing left to do for His saints, is to believe in God’s wonderful accomplishment of salvation and be thankful.  Faith is a gift purchased by the accomplished salvation of Jesus Christ. And so, believers do not add to the good news of Jesus’ salvation; rather, it being already accomplished adds, recreates, animates and lead His chosen ones safely home.  Because Jesus did the saving, then there is nothing left to do but to believe and be thankful for it.

            God, in the resurrection power that thrust Jesus from the grave into the highest heaven, in total authority over all things, is the power that causes His chosen ones to have the courage to stop cowering behind their empty self-righteousness and shaking underneath their hollow self-sufficiency. In power of endless Life God causes His saints to bravely believe that Jesus Christ is their righteousness and their sufficiency.

            Secondly, this is why the gospel of Jesus is the power of God unto salvation. Because salvation is being worked by the hands of the God whose mouth spoke the worlds into existence, then there is no telling the endless power of what God’s hand can do. In fact, those hands were nailed to the cross as a propitiation and expiation and gift of righteousness for His Father, on the behalf of His beloved church. Man was not involved in salvation (except the sin that made salvation necessary), and this insures man cannot mess it up.  It ensures that God’s glory goes on full exhibit without man messing it up (Ezekiel 36).

            Thirdly, this is why God hates unbelief so much. God sends His infinitely beloved Son to work salvation and reveal this salvation in a clear univocal revelation, and men still chose to believe Satan and themselves over the words the proceed from the mouth of God.  And so, part of unbelievers’ punishment for rejecting God’s word, is God giving over to more and more vicious cycles of continuing, spiraling delusions.

“We realize that the Bible's message offends non-Christians. But the very form of its existence is also a stumbling block to them. If they were to believe in God at all, they would not expect him to speak through the Bible, that is, through a book. Naaman said that he thought Elisha would come out to him, call upon his God, and wave his hand over his leprosy and cure him. Of course God could do it this way, although he did not give Naaman what he expected. But a wise servant reasoned with Naaman, so that he submitted to the prophet's instructions and was healed. Now non-Christians expect God to cause a hand to appear and write a message before them, or to speak from heaven in a thundering voice. Or, they expect Christ to appear in a blinding light, saying, "Fool, Fool, why do you persecute me? It is hard for you to kick against the pricks." What? "I mean it is hard for you to keep hitting your head against the wall."

God had, indeed, done all these things, and contrary to many theologians, he could still do them if he wants. There is nothing in the Bible to guarantee us that he would always comply with the doctrine of cessationism. Nevertheless, in most cases the truth of Jesus Christ does not reach men by what they regard as spectacular ways. Instead, God hands them a book, and in effect, says, "Read it. Believe it and live. Disbelieve it and burn in hell." This is very difficult, even impossible, for non-Christians to accept. As Jesus said, if someone refused to believe Moses, then he would refuse to believe even if a person were to return from the dead to speak to him. Men's refusal to hear the risen Christ is the ultimate fulfillment of this. But God awakens the intelligence of his chosen ones to perceive the Bible's wisdom and power, and to realize that the book is identical to the voice of God.

The Bible told Abraham that he would become the father of many nations, and that through him all kinds of people would be blessed. The promise was never meant to be fulfilled by the flesh, but by the power of God. It was never meant to come in the way that Ishmael came, but in the way that Isaac came. All nations would be blessed because through Abraham, Christ would be born, and his gospel would spread throughout the whole earth, converting multitudes to the truth, saving them from sin and hell, and ensuring them their place in heaven. They would be united by this one promise that came through Abraham. Whether Jew or non-Jew, male or female, rich or poor, they would be united – blessed by one promise – by their common faith in Jesus.”[4]

This is why faith is such a superior path to walk on for the Christian. The just walk by faith, for this is precisely what faith believes; that God makes His chosen ones righteous by the suffering and resurrection of Jesus Christ.  Not only is God’s Word the only first principle that yields a rational worldview, but it is a wonderful revelation of God’s mercy to His church.  By the endless power of Life in God’s Spirit, God causes them to rationally understand the world as it actually is.  They learn of God’s wonder and grace, in that the world was created for the glory of the Christ and the saints of light He saved. The beauty of God’s Scripture is that from the beginning God gives His saints the good path, the intellectually superior path.  They walk on this path by the act of believing, and one day it will be a path of glorious sight in heaven. They are on good ground from the start in Jesus Christ.

            When God spoke a word from His mouth, in one day the host of endless stars appeared in the cosmos shining and burning; surely with such limitless power infused into one little word, then there is every reason for man to jump up and grab, clinging to God’s words, knowing they will carry them safely through the endless ages and beyond; even carry them in to the sight of their beloved Savior.

      Therefore [the promise of God’s redemption] is of faith that it might be according to grace, so that the promise might be sure to all the seed. God, who gives life to the dead and calls those things which do not exist as though they did [said to “Abraham, who is the Father of us all, “I have made you a father of many nations.”]  Abraham, contrary to hope, in hope believed, so that he became the father of many nations. And not being weak in faith, he did not consider his own body, already dead (since he was about a hundred years old), and the deadness of Sarah's womb.  He did not waver at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God, and being fully convinced that what He had promised He was also able to perform.   Now…it shall be imputed [i.e. the promise of God’s redemption] to us  who believe in Him who raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was delivered up because of our offenses, and was raised because of our justification. (Rom. 4:16-25]



[1] I would highly recommend my book on philosophy called: The Undefeatable Worldview

[2] Jesus Christ appeals to the Law of Noncontradiction in the passage of “The LORD said to my lord.”

[3] This is why rationalism fails and collapses on itself as a philosophy.  Some logical laws as the LoC, are self-authenticating in a limited sense of ontological necessity, in that one must use them in order to think; however, they do not give propositions of the world, nor do they tell us where they come from, how a mind can even use them and (etc.). For such answers logical axioms must go to a higher first principle; and thus, by this they divorce themselves from being an epistemology of knowledge. The higher authority they go to is the Scripture, but the Scripture says all other ways of thinking are wrong.

[4] Vincent Cheung, Sermonettes Vol. 1, 2010, pg. 5-6.

 
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